Chinese

The discrimination on Chinese in US laws developed from the 20th century to 21st century.

Figure 1- http://www.dipity.com/eakokol/Immigration/

America is a country that covers multicultural; as a consequence, different racism discriminate the other racism from the discrimination laws and racial prejudice. The first racial discrimination in America started at Christopher Columbus discriminated the natives when he first discovered the America. (1) From the middle of the 19th century, the discrimination not only emerges on the jobs and education, but also on the discrimination laws. African Americans, Asians and Indians, who are difficult to find a job and bully by the other races in America. Moreover, America laws have discriminated on Asian people moreover than 200 years, especially the Chinese.

The unequal treatment initiated after the Gold Rush, because Chinese heard about the Gold mountain and wanted to earn money. It caused many Americans cannot explore more gold than others. Additionally, Most of the immigrations are male and they also helped America to build the railroad, but the less cost of the Chinese labors caused many white labors lost their job and even find a job. (2) Therefore, much racialism advocated that Chinese should be out of their country. More people joined the demonstrations during the economic depression. In the year of 1882, America established The Chinese Exclusion Act which limited the Chinese immigration to America. This law extended to the 20th century and at the year of 1943 which America abolished The Chinese Exclusion. (3) Starting at 1952, America began to limit the immigration from the world which based on the skill sets and family reunification. It also eliminated laws preventing Asians from becoming naturalized American citizens. (4)

With the immigrant laws has changed, which seem that American constitution gradual reduce the discrimination on Chinese. Nonetheless, the Alien Land Law was still allowing discrimination in Florida constitution in present. However, during the 20th century to 21st century, it is interesting to realize how the discrimination laws have developed. The immigrant laws for Chinese have three significant stages in different periods: the period of banning; the period of limitation and the period of selection.

The period of banning for the Chinese immigrations:

Because of the Gold Rush, the first immigrant wave of Chinese to America was beginning in 1848 and American welcome Chinese to US at the beginning. However, after the economic depression, many people started to against the immigration from China. Therefore, the U.S. Congress passed The Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 which caused many Chinese immigrants have to decide to live in America and found a new family or go back to China, because they cannot carry their family and wife to America. (5) From the end of the 19th century to the early 20th century, American government extended the strictness of immigration laws for Chinese. During the period of 1910 to 1940, all the Chinese have to go to Angel Island immigration station when they arrived in America. Chinese will be detain and interrogated at there and wait for permission to entry the United States. Generally, thousands of Chinese will be detain for months in a painful situation and some people will not get the permission and back to China. (6) American constitution established many strict laws to prohibit Chinese immigrations, which are the period of banning for the Chinese immigrants.

The period of limitation for the Chinese immigrations:

Nonetheless, President Franklin D. Roosevelt repealed the Chinese Exclusion Acts in 1943, because china was American ally to fight with the fascist during the World War II. It was true that American indicated they did not have any prejudices for Chinese during that period. However, there was a limitation emerged that American government still discriminated the Chinese from the law which was limiting for 105 visas to Chinese immigrants in annual. The purpose of this limitation is controlling the quantity of the immigrations and implied that America still did not welcome Chinese immigrations, but America attempted to shape a positive image for the Chinese government. This discrimination act maintained from 1943 to 1952. (7)   The discrimination showed by the limitation on Chinese immigrations, but America altered its attitude from the period of banning to the period of accept the Chinese immigrants.

The period of selection for the Chinese immigrations:

The Korean War between America and china took place from 1950 to 1953, which seem that discrimination on Chinese will be continue. However, America established the Immigration and Nationality Act which mentioned that America began to limit the immigration from the world which based on the skill sets and family reunification. (8) This law indicated America did not have any discrimination on any races and each race and the country has the equal opportunity to immigrant to America. After this policy, china had another immigrant wave. Consequently, “these new immigrants did not come from the same few rural provinces of China as the immigrants of the 1800s and early 1900s had.” (9) The majority of these immigrations are from the cities which are wealthy. From 1953, this policy has continued to present, and it was the beginning of repeal the discrimination on Chinese in the American laws.

The Alien Land Law:

People would realize that America already abolished the discrimination law in its constitution, but the Alien Land Law is still allowing the discrimination in Florida constitution. The Alien Land Law was first establishing for preventing Asians owned property in California in 1913. After California was establishing the Alien Land Law, many other states in USA established the similar law in the state constitution. Many states repealed the Alien Land Law with the World War II had been over, but the Florida Alien Land Law became the last vestige of the discriminative law in US. (10) The anti- Chinese attempted to advice the Floridians to realize what the Alien Land Law is and it contains the racial discrimination, because many Floridians voted no to repeal this law in 2008. (11) It seemed that US government abolished all the discrimination laws in the American constitution, but there are some states contain the discrimination in the state constitution.

Conclusion:

Although the discriminative laws will be solve in the next recent years, the racial discrimination would be still involved in the other aspects of the social issues. The racial discrimination is the issue from the root of the various races and own prejudice. However, from the three different periods which were the period of banning; the period of limitation and the period of selection can realize that there are conversions of the racial discrimination during the last two centuries. From these three periods, it also indicated how the racial discrimination developed during the 20th century to 21st century in the North America.


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1.     Random History, “Christopher Columbus Discovers America -A History of the New World”, http://www.randomhistory.com/christopher-columbus-in-the-history-of-america.html, accessed March 18, 2012,

2.     Joyce Chen, Chinese Immigration to the United States: History, Selectivity and Human Capital.

3.     Henry K. Norton, “Gold Rush and Anti-Chinese Race Hatred – 1849.” Museum of the City of San Francisco. http://www.sfmuseum.net/hist6/chinhate.html (accessed March 18, 2012).

4.     Anna O. Law, The immigration battle in American courts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

5.     “A history of immigration from China to the US..” Golden Venture immigration documentary. http://www.goldenventuremovie.com/Chinese_Immigration.htm (accessed March 18, 2012).

6.     Citation 6

7.     Citation 7

8.     Charles B. Keely, “Effects of the Immigration Act of 1965 on Selected Population Characteristics of Immigrants to the United States.” Population Association of America 8, no. 2 (1971): 157-169.

9.     “A history of immigration from China to the US..” Golden Venture immigration documentary. http://www.goldenventuremovie.com/Chinese_Immigration.htm (accessed March 18, 2012).

10.  Esquire Christine M. Ho, “Florida’s alien land law: The last Vestige of Discrimination.” Asia Trade Magazine, July 24, 2011.

11.  Jessica K. Hew, “Florida Alien Land Law: A Constitutional Provision Allowing Discrimination.” Asia Trend Magazine, October 7, 2011.